K.P. Oli was born on 22 February 1952 in a Brahmin family at Terathum.
He was the eldest child of Mohan Prasad and Madhumaya Oli.
Oli was raised by his grandmother, Rammaya, after his mother died of smallpox when Oli was four.
He did his primary school education in Terathum and later his family migrated to the south eastern district of Jhapa.
He resided mostly in Jhapa during his early political life.
Oli started his studies at Himalaya Higher Secondary School in Damak municipality of Jhapa district at the age of 12.
He left school in grade six.
Oli met his wife, Radhika Shakya, a fellow communist, after coming out of prison.
They first met in the course of party activities and married later.